The starkest warning came from Leszek Balcerowicz, a former deputy prime minister representing Poland. He said the priority would be to deter populists in other countries who wanted to copy Brexit. For this reason Britain would be punished by its partners even if that seemed to be against their interests. Mr Cameron’s negotiations may be hard, but they are a picnic compared with what he would face were he to lose his referendum.

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    Stephen Booth

    Acting Director and Director of Policy and Research Stephen is Acting Director and Director of Policy and Research at Open Europe. While at Open Europe he has written on EU regulation, justice and home affairs and EU aid policy. Stephen holds an undergraduate degree in political science and was awarded the Jean Monnet Prize for his master's degree in European studies from the University of Sussex. Stephen's professional interests include democracy and transparency in the EU, the interaction between domestic and EU law and European cooperation in crime and policing. He is half Dutch.
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    Pieter Cleppe

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    Prior to joining Open Europe in 2009, Vincenzo gained work experience at the Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs. An Italian native, he is fluent in French and Spanish, and speaks good German. Vincenzo holds a Master's degree (Hons) in International Relations and World Politics from the University of Naples 'L'Orientale' and a Master's in International Affairs from the University of Bologna 'Alma Mater Studiorum'. He has also worked as a musician, and holds a diploma in classical piano from the Conservatory of Music of Avellino - his home town in Italy.
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    Research and Communications Officer Alex joined Open Europe after working in public affairs and political reporting in Westminster and at the European Parliament under a Robert Schuman scholarship. He holds a Graduate Diploma in Politics from the LSE with a focus on the European Union, Comparative Politics, and International Political Economy. He also holds a Master’s in European Literature from the University of Cambridge, and is fluent in French and Spanish. See Articles
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    Aarti Shankar

    Policy Analyst Aarti joined Open Europe after working as a researcher in public affairs. She holds a masters in European Public Policy from UCL, with a focus on crisis policy learning within the European Union. She also holds an undergraduate degree in French and English Literature from Durham University, and was awarded the university's 2015 combined honours research prize. She speaks fluent French. See Articles

Need to know facts

30%

UK exports of goods and services to the world (% of GDP)

In the first briefing in a research-series on Brexit, Open Europe explores the impact of an EU withdrawal on exports of UK goods and services. UK exports of goods and services to the EU account for about 14% of UK GPD, while the worldwide figure is 30% of GDP. Open Europe finds that if there were a Brexit, it would be much harder for the UK to secure a free trade deal with the EU in the services sector, than in the goods sector. Source: Open Europe
Financial 25%
Insurance & Pension 4%
Other business services 26%
Travel 16%
Transport 12%
Other 17%

UK services exports to the EU (2015) - total £88.9bn

In 2015, the UK’s surplus in services with the EU was £20.9bn, largely driven by the £19.1bn surplus in financial services and £3.6bn in insurance services. In terms of services exports to the EU, financial services accounted for 25% of exports, while insurance accounted for a further 4%.Source: ONS Pink Book

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