The starkest warning came from Leszek Balcerowicz, a former deputy prime minister representing Poland. He said the priority would be to deter populists in other countries who wanted to copy Brexit. For this reason Britain would be punished by its partners even if that seemed to be against their interests. Mr Cameron’s negotiations may be hard, but they are a picnic compared with what he would face were he to lose his referendum.

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    Henry Newman

    Director Henry joins Open Europe having worked as a special adviser in the Ministry of Justice and the Cabinet Office. He has taught politics at the School of Oriental and African Studies and elsewhere, and studied at the University of Oxford, Harvard University, and the London School of Economics. See Articles
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    Stephen Booth

    Director of Policy and Research Stephen is Director of Policy and Research at Open Europe. While at Open Europe he has written on EU regulation, justice and home affairs and EU aid policy. Stephen holds an undergraduate degree in political science and was awarded the Jean Monnet Prize for his master's degree in European studies from the University of Sussex. Stephen's professional interests include democracy and transparency in the EU, the interaction between domestic and EU law and European cooperation in crime and policing. He is half Dutch.
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    Pieter Cleppe

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    Vincenzo Scarpetta

    Senior Policy Analyst Vincenzo specialises in the politics and economics of Southern Europe and is a regular commentator in print and broadcast media across Europe. Vincenzo has co-authored policy-changing Open Europe Intelligence on EU free movement, employment law, financial regulation and the European Neighbourhood Policy. He is also an expert on the EU institutions, the Eurozone crisis, and the cost of EU regulation.

    Prior to joining Open Europe in 2009, Vincenzo gained work experience at the Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs. An Italian native, he is fluent in French and Spanish, and speaks good German. Vincenzo holds a Master's degree (Hons) in International Relations and World Politics from the University of Naples 'L'Orientale' and a Master's in International Affairs from the University of Bologna 'Alma Mater Studiorum'. He has also worked as a musician, and holds a diploma in classical piano from the Conservatory of Music of Avellino - his home town in Italy.
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    Alex Greer

    Research and Communications Officer Alex joined Open Europe after working in public affairs and political reporting in Westminster and at the European Parliament under a Robert Schuman scholarship. He holds a Graduate Diploma in Politics from the LSE with a focus on the European Union, Comparative Politics, and International Political Economy. He also holds a Master’s in European Literature from the University of Cambridge, and is fluent in French and Spanish. See Articles
  • Aarti Shankar, Policy Analyst

    Aarti Shankar

    Policy Analyst Aarti joined Open Europe after working as a researcher in public affairs. She holds a masters in European Public Policy from UCL, with a focus on crisis policy learning within the European Union. She also holds an undergraduate degree in French and English Literature from Durham University, and was awarded the university's 2015 combined honours research prize. She speaks fluent French. See Articles

Need to know facts

Financial 25%
Insurance & Pension 4%
Other business services 26%
Travel 16%
Transport 12%
Other 17%

UK services exports to the EU (2015) - total £88.9bn

In 2015, the UK’s surplus in services with the EU was £20.9bn, largely driven by the £19.1bn surplus in financial services and £3.6bn in insurance services. In terms of services exports to the EU, financial services accounted for 25% of exports, while insurance accounted for a further 4%.Source: ONS Pink Book
UK $873.36bn
France $24bn
Germany $68bn
Other $626bn

Average daily foreign exchange turnover in euros (total $1,591bn)

The UK is currently a significant centre for euro foreign exchange trading, accounting for around 55% of euro-denominated daily foreign exchange turnover. However will the UK be able to keep euro clearing following Brexit?Source: BIS

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