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The only three British regions to back Remain were among the areas with the lowest turnout. In particular, the Scottish turnout was lower than expected. Three in five Scots backed Remain and they were expected to have the highest figure after “referendum fever” saw 85% of Scots vote in the 2014 independence vote. But in the end they had a lower turnout than every region except Northern Ireland. London did have a lower than average turnout which may have caused by heavy rain and flash floods on the day of the referendum.
Turnout in areas with a higher proportion of younger residents tended to be lower while those areas with the highest share of older voters enjoyed the highest turnout.
As well as age, educational attainment and national identity were also key factors in how the UK voted.
Open Europe has conducted comprehensive studies of UK withdrawal from the EU and simulated UK-EU negotiations involving key politicians from across Europe: